Background: Performance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is usually restricted to hospitals with cardiac surgery on site. We conducted a noninferiority trial to compare the outcomes of PCI performed at hospitals without and those with on-site cardiac surgery.
Methods: We randomly assigned participants to undergo PCI at a hospital with or without on-site cardiac surgery. Patients requiring primary PCI were excluded. The trial had two primary end points: 6-week mortality and 9-month incidence of major adverse cardiac events (the composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization). Noninferiority margins for the risk difference were 0.4 percentage points for mortality at 6 weeks and 1.8 percentage points for major adverse cardiac events at 9 months.
Results: A total of 18,867 patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to undergo PCI at a hospital without on-site cardiac surgery (14,149 patients) or with on-site cardiac surgery (4718 patients). The 6-week mortality rate was 0.9% at hospitals without on-site surgery versus 1.0% at those with on-site surgery (difference, -0.04 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.31 to 0.23; P=0.004 for noninferiority). The 9-month rates of major adverse cardiac events were 12.1% and 11.2% at hospitals without and those with on-site surgery, respectively (difference, 0.92 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.04 to 1.80; P=0.05 for noninferiority). The rate of target-vessel revascularization was higher in hospitals without on-site surgery (6.5% vs. 5.4%, P=0.01).
Conclusions: We found that PCI performed at hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery was noninferior to PCI performed at hospitals with on-site cardiac surgery with respect to mortality at 6 weeks and major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. (Funded by the Cardiovascular Patient Outcomes Research Team [C-PORT] participating sites; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00549796.).