Outcomes of PCI at Hospitals With or Without On-Site Cardiac Surgery

N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1792-802. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1114540. Epub 2012 Mar 25.

Abstract

Background: Performance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is usually restricted to hospitals with cardiac surgery on site. We conducted a noninferiority trial to compare the outcomes of PCI performed at hospitals without and those with on-site cardiac surgery.

Methods: We randomly assigned participants to undergo PCI at a hospital with or without on-site cardiac surgery. Patients requiring primary PCI were excluded. The trial had two primary end points: 6-week mortality and 9-month incidence of major adverse cardiac events (the composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization). Noninferiority margins for the risk difference were 0.4 percentage points for mortality at 6 weeks and 1.8 percentage points for major adverse cardiac events at 9 months.

Results: A total of 18,867 patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to undergo PCI at a hospital without on-site cardiac surgery (14,149 patients) or with on-site cardiac surgery (4718 patients). The 6-week mortality rate was 0.9% at hospitals without on-site surgery versus 1.0% at those with on-site surgery (difference, -0.04 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.31 to 0.23; P=0.004 for noninferiority). The 9-month rates of major adverse cardiac events were 12.1% and 11.2% at hospitals without and those with on-site surgery, respectively (difference, 0.92 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.04 to 1.80; P=0.05 for noninferiority). The rate of target-vessel revascularization was higher in hospitals without on-site surgery (6.5% vs. 5.4%, P=0.01).

Conclusions: We found that PCI performed at hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery was noninferior to PCI performed at hospitals with on-site cardiac surgery with respect to mortality at 6 weeks and major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. (Funded by the Cardiovascular Patient Outcomes Research Team [C-PORT] participating sites; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00549796.).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary* / adverse effects
  • Cardiology Service, Hospital*
  • Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Emergency Treatment
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Retreatment
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00549796