The treatment of endometrial cancer has changed substantially in the past decade with the introduction of a new staging system and surgical approaches accompanied by novel adjuvant therapies. Primary surgical treatment is the mainstay of therapy but the effectiveness and extent of lymphadenectomy has been challenged, and its acceptance as a routine procedure varies by country. The role of radiation has evolved and chemotherapy has been incorporated, either alone or combined with radiation, to treat the many patients in whom cancer recurs because of a tumour outside the originally radiated pelvic and lower abdominal area. Use of traditional adjuvant chemotherapeutics has been challenged in clinical trials of new agents with improved side-effect profiles. Novel agents and targeted therapies are being investigated. Research into genetic susceptibility to endometrial cancer and the potential genetic aberrations that might translate into therapeutic interventions continues to increase. Substantial global variability in the treatment of endometrial cancer has led to examination of long-accepted norms, which has resulted in rapidly changing standards. International cooperation in clinical trials will hasten progress in treatment of this ubiquitous cancer.
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