Female-only vaccination programmes for human papillomavirus (HPV) have been introduced in many countries aimed at the prevention of cervical cancer in women. One HPV vaccine is registered for male vaccination, but boys, men, or both, are not yet included in nationally funded HPV vaccination programmes. In this Review we discuss the different considerations relevant to the introduction of population-wide HPV vaccination of boys in Australia, which was the first country to publicly fund HPV vaccination of girls. Several factors need to be taken into account during decision making around the introduction of population-based vaccination programmes, such as local disease burden, vaccine efficacy, vaccine safety, and cost-effectiveness. Social and ethical factors are also important. Although evidence for men is increasing in these areas, uncertainties need to be kept in mind. The features discussed in this Review are likely to be applicable, with caveats, to policy making in other developed countries.
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