Effects of dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on HbA(1c), body weight, and hypoglycemia risk in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone monotherapy

Diabetes Care. 2012 Jul;35(7):1473-8. doi: 10.2337/dc11-1693. Epub 2012 Mar 23.


Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, added on to pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone.

Research design and methods: Treatment-naive patients or those receiving metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione entered a 10-week pioglitazone dose-optimization period with only pioglitazone. They were then randomized, along with patients previously receiving pioglitazone ≥30 mg, to 48 weeks of double-blind dapagliflozin 5 (n = 141) or 10 mg (n = 140) or placebo (n = 139) every day plus open-label pioglitazone. The primary objective compared HbA(1c) change from baseline with dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone versus placebo plus pioglitazone at week 24. Primary analysis was based on ANCOVA model using last observation carried forward; all remaining analyses used repeated-measures analysis.

Results: At week 24, the mean reduction from baseline in HbA(1c) was -0.42% for placebo versus -0.82 and -0.97% for dapagliflozin 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively (P = 0.0007 and P < 0.0001 versus placebo). Patients receiving pioglitazone alone had greater weight gain (3 kg) than those receiving dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone (0.7-1.4 kg) at week 48. Through 48 weeks: hypoglycemia was rare; more events suggestive of genital infection were reported with dapagliflozin (8.6-9.2%) than placebo (2.9%); events suggestive of urinary tract infection showed no clear drug effect (5.0-8.5% for dapagliflozin and 7.9% for placebo); dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone groups had less edema (2.1-4.3%) compared with placebo plus pioglitazone (6.5%); and congestive heart failure and fractures were rare.

Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone, the addition of dapagliflozin further reduced HbA(1c) levels and mitigated the pioglitazone-related weight gain without increasing hypoglycemia risk.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00683878.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Glucosides / therapeutic use*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / drug effects*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / etiology*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pioglitazone
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors*
  • Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucosides
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • SLC5A2 protein, human
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • dapagliflozin
  • Pioglitazone

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00683878