A quantitative approach to hepatic clearance prediction of metabolism by aldehyde oxidase using custom pooled hepatocytes

Xenobiotica. 2012 Sep;42(9):863-71. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2012.670736. Epub 2012 Mar 26.


We describe the usability of human pooled hepatocytes for non-CYP metabolism evaluation and an in vivo-in vitro correlation analysis for aldehyde oxidase (AO) substrate compounds using pooled hepatocytes. By comparing intrinsic clearance values of 18 compounds primarily metabolized by AO, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, carbonyl/aldo-keto reductase, flavin-containing monooxygenase, and monoamineoxidase in individual hepatocytes and pooled hepatocytes from the same individual donors, intrinsic clearance in the pooled hepatocytes was ± 30% of the average clearance value in individuals for 15 of 18 compounds, suggesting that pooled hepatocytes maintained the average activity of the individual hepatocytes. Although the results of an in vivo-in vitro correlation analysis for AO substrate compounds showed a trend toward under-prediction, the underestimation ratios for all AO substrates were nevertheless comparable (7.2- to 14.9-fold), suggesting that hepatic clearance prediction for these compounds can be quantified using empirical scaling. These observations enabled us to obtain specific pooled hepatocytes that showed the expected non-CYP enzyme activities by pre-characterization and to quantify hepatic clearance prediction for AO compounds using an empirical scaling factor.

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism*
  • Aldehyde Reductase
  • Aldo-Keto Reductases
  • Cryopreservation
  • Glucuronosyltransferase / metabolism
  • Hepatocytes / enzymology
  • Hepatocytes / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate / physiology*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Monoamine Oxidase / metabolism
  • Oxygenases / metabolism
  • Ultracentrifugation
  • Xenobiotics / blood
  • Xenobiotics / metabolism*


  • Xenobiotics
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases
  • Aldo-Keto Reductases
  • Aldehyde Reductase
  • Oxygenases
  • dimethylaniline monooxygenase (N-oxide forming)
  • Aldehyde Oxidase
  • Monoamine Oxidase
  • UGT1A1 enzyme
  • Glucuronosyltransferase