Illicit use of androgens and other hormones: recent advances

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012 Jun;19(3):211-9. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283524008.


Purpose of review: To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones.

Recent findings: Androgens and other appearance-enhancing and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, and clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence.

Summary: Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public health concern.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Androgens / adverse effects*
  • Androgens / pharmacology
  • Behavioral Symptoms / chemically induced*
  • Behavioral Symptoms / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Dietary Supplements / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Fitness Centers
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / chemically induced*
  • Hypogonadism / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances / adverse effects*
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances / pharmacology
  • Public Health
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Androgens
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances