MicroRNA (miRs) represent a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing a major role in the control of gene expression by repressing protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Studies carried out during the last years have shown that some miRNAs plays a key role in the control of normal and malignant hgematopoiesis. In this review we focus on recent progress in analyzing the functional role of miR-146a in the control of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. On the other hand, this miRNA has shown to impact in the control of innate immune responses. Finally, many recent studies indicate a deregulation of miR-146 in many solid tumors and gene knockout studies indicate a role for this miRNA as a tumor suppressor.