Endosomal functions are contingent on the integrity of the organelle-limiting membrane, whose disruption induces inflammation and cell death. Here we show that phagocytosis of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene particles induces damage to the endosomal-limiting membrane and results in the leakage of cathepsins into the cytosol and NLRP3-inflammasome activation. Annexin A2 recruitment to damaged organelles is shown by two-dimensional DIGE protein profiling, endosomal fractionation, confocal analysis of endogenous and annexin A2-GFP transfected cells, and immunogold labelling. Binding experiments, using fluorescent liposomes, confirms annexin A2 recruitment to endosomes containing phagocytosed polyethylene particles. Finally, an increase in cytosolic cathepsins, NLRP3-inflammasome activation, and IL-1 production is seen in dendritic cells from annexin A2-null mice, following exposure to polyethylene particles. Together, the results indicate a functional role of annexin A2 binding to endosomal membranes following organelle destabilization.