Background: Successful aging depends in part on delaying age-related disease onsets until later in life. Conditions including coronary artery disease, Alzheimer's disease, prostate cancer, and type 2 diabetes are moderately heritable. Genome-wide association studies have identified many risk associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms for these conditions, but much heritability remains unaccounted for. Nevertheless, a great deal is being learned.
Methods: Here, we review age-related disease associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms and identify key underlying pathways including lipid handling, specific immune processes, early tissue development, and cell cycle control.
Results: Most age-related disease associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms do not affect coding regions of genes or protein makeup but instead influence regulation of gene expression. Recent evidence indicates that evolution of gene regulatory sites is fundamental to interspecies differences. Animal models relevant to human aging may therefore need to focus more on gene regulation rather than testing major disruptions to fundamental pathway genes. Recent larger scale human studies of in vivo genome-wide expression (notably from the InCHIANTI aging study) have identified changes in splicing, the "fine tuning" of protein sequences, as a potentially important factor in decline of cellular function with age. Studies of expression with muscle strength and cognition have shown striking concordance with certain mice models of muscle repair and beta-amyloid phagocytosis respectively.
Conclusions: The emerging clearer picture of the genetic architecture of age-related diseases in humans is providing new insights into the underlying pathophysiological pathways involved. Translation of genomics into new approaches to prevention, tests and treatments to extend successful aging is therefore likely in the coming decades.