Aim: Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor (SMMCI) is a developmental anomaly in the permanent dentition with one single central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This condition has been associated with extra- and intraoral malformations in the frontonasal segment of the cranium and face. It is not known whether the centrally located permanent incisor is always preceded by a centrally located primary incisor. The aim was to analyse whether a permanent single central incisor in SMMCI is always preceded by a primary single central incisor and to study extra- and intraoral phenotypic traits of the condition.
Study design: cross-sectional radiographic study of 11 children, visual analysis of photos and dental and panoramic radiographs.
Results: Nine of the 11 cases exhibited a primary SMMCI with one symmetrical crown and root. Two cases exhibited two separate primary central incisor crowns with fused roots. The phenotypical traits (indistinct philtrum, lack of normal upper lip contour, missing superior labial frenulum and distinct mid-palatal ridge) were findings observed in young children with a primary SMMCI.
Conclusion: The present study concludes and stresses the necessity of diagnosing of the SMMCI condition early in life. Furthermore, paediatric dentists are recommended to be aware of the condition and to refer these patients to interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment.