We performed high-throughput sequencing of DNA from fossilized faeces to evaluate this material as a source of information on the genome and diet of Pleistocene carnivores. We analysed coprolites derived from the extinct cave hyena (Crocuta crocuta spelaea), and sequenced 90 million DNA fragments from two specimens. The DNA reads enabled a reconstruction of the cave hyena mitochondrial genome with up to a 158-fold coverage. This genome, and those sequenced from extant spotted (Crocuta crocuta) and striped (Hyaena hyaena) hyena specimens, allows for the establishment of a robust phylogeny that supports a close relationship between the cave and the spotted hyena. We also demonstrate that high-throughput sequencing yields data for cave hyena multi-copy and single-copy nuclear genes, and that about 50 per cent of the coprolite DNA can be ascribed to this species. Analysing the data for additional species to indicate the cave hyena diet, we retrieved abundant sequences for the red deer (Cervus elaphus), and characterized its mitochondrial genome with up to a 3.8-fold coverage. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of abundant ancient DNA in the coprolites surveyed. Shotgun sequencing of this material yielded a wealth of DNA sequences for a Pleistocene carnivore and allowed unbiased identification of diet.