The double burden of malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk widens the gender and socio-economic health gap: a study among adults in Burkina Faso (West Africa)

Public Health Nutr. 2012 Dec;15(12):2210-9. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012000729. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Abstract

Objective: To document the double burden of malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) in adults and its occurrence according to different sociodemographic parameters.

Design: Population-based cross-sectional observational study. We first randomly selected 330 households stratified by tertile of the income levels proxy as low, middle and high income.

Setting: Northern district of Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso.

Subjects: In each income stratum, 110 individuals aged 25-60 years and who had lived permanently in Ouagadougou for at least 6 months were randomly selected, followed with collection of anthropometric, socio-economic and clinical data, and blood samples.

Results: The overall obesity/overweight prevalence was 24.2 % and it was twice as high in women as in men (34.1 % v. 15.5 %, P < 0.001). Hypertension, hyperglycaemia and low HDL cholesterol prevalence was 21.9 %, 22.3 % and 30.0 %, respectively, without gender difference. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 10.3 %. Iron depletion and vitamin A deficiency affected 15.7 % and 25.7 % of participants, respectively, with higher rates in women. Coexistence of at least one nutritional deficiency and one CMRF was observed in 23.5 % of participants, and this 'double burden' was significantly higher in women than in men (30.4 % v. 16.1 %, P = 0.008) and in the low income group.

Conclusions: CMRF are becoming a leading nutritional problem in adults of Ouagadougou, while nutritional deficiencies persist. The double nutritional burden exacerbates health inequities and calls for action addressing both malnutrition and nutrition-related chronic diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / blood
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / epidemiology
  • Burkina Faso / epidemiology
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood*
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / complications*
  • Hyperglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Malnutrition / blood
  • Malnutrition / complications*
  • Malnutrition / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin A Deficiency / epidemiology

Substances

  • Cholesterol, HDL