Neutropenia is a common reason for hematology consultations in the inpatient and outpatient settings and is defined as an absolute neutrophil count less than 1500 cells/μL. Neutropenia varies in severity, with more profound neutropenia being associated with higher rates of infections and infection-related deaths. The causes for neutropenia are diverse and include congenital and acquired conditions (ie, autoimmune, drugs, infection, and malignancy). This article outlines the most common causes of neutropenia and discusses differential diagnoses, treatment modalities, and the mechanisms by which neutropenia occurs.
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