Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the rate of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for exudative age-related macular degeneration.
Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients receiving intravitreal ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration from November 2005 to June 2010. Delayed ocular hypertension (OHT) was defined as either an IOP ≥22 mmHg on 2 consecutive visits (with an increase from baseline >6 mmHg) or an IOP >26 mmHg on a single visit with a concomitant initiation or augmentation of IOP-lowering treatment. Noninjected fellow eyes served as controls. Incidence of delayed OHT was analyzed using survival analyses, with risk assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Eyes with glaucoma were evaluated separately.
Results: Three hundred and two treated eyes and 226 control eyes met inclusion criteria. In eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration without glaucoma, 3 of 270 injected eyes (0.51% incidence per eye-year) developed delayed OHT compared with 4 of 195 control eyes (1.00% incidence per eye-year), a difference that was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.11-2.23). In eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, 2 of 32 injected eyes developed delayed OHT (3.1% incidence per eye-year) compared with 3 of 31 control eyes (5.7% incidence per eye-year), a difference that was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.10-3.60).
Conclusion: The incidence of delayed OHT after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections was low and did not differ between injected and control eyes, including eyes with glaucoma. These results argue against a significant risk of IOP elevation because of repeated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.