Identification of risk factors for chronic Q fever, the Netherlands

Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;18(4):563-70. doi: 10.3201/eid1804.111478.


Since 2007, the Netherlands has experienced a large Q fever outbreak. To identify and quantify risk factors for development of chronic Q fever after Coxiella burnetii infection, we performed a case-control study. Comorbidity, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and demographic characteristics from 105 patients with proven (n = 44), probable (n = 28), or possible (n = 33) chronic Q fever were compared with 201 patients who had acute Q fever in 2009 but in whom chronic Q fever did not develop (controls). Independent risk factors for development of proven chronic Q fever were valvular surgery, vascular prosthesis, aneurysm, renal insufficiency, and older age.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aneurysm / complications
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Humans
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neoplasms / complications
  • Netherlands
  • Q Fever / epidemiology
  • Q Fever / etiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency / complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult