Secular trends in the epidemiology of pre-eclampsia throughout 40 years in Norway: prevalence, risk factors and perinatal survival

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 May;26(3):190-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01260.x. Epub 2012 Feb 10.


Pre-eclampsia is a leading complication of pregnancy, associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity. The present study describes the epidemiology of pre-eclampsia in Norway, with data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, covering 40 years. We aimed at describing time trends in prevalence, selected risk factors and perinatal mortality. We also analysed time trends in recurrence risk of total pre-eclampsia and pre-eclampsia with preterm delivery. A total of 2,416,501 women giving birth during 1967-2008 were included. Prevalence of pre-eclampsia increased from 1967 to 1999 and decreased thereafter, with an overall prevalence of 3%. Rates increased more over time among younger than older women, resulting in a significantly lower excess risk of pre-eclampsia associated with high maternal age in later years. For example, relative risk (RR) of pre-eclampsia among primiparae aged ≥35 relative to <25 years changed from 2.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 2.7] in 1967-1976 to 1.2 [95% CI 1.1, 1.3] in 1999-2008. For recurrence risk, subsequent pregnancies to a mother were linked, with the mother being the unit of analysis. Recurrence risk of pre-eclampsia was high, particularly recurrence of preterm pre-eclampsia, with overall RR close to 50 of a second pregnancy with pre-eclampsia and preterm birth compared with women without pre-eclampsia in first pregnancies. Finally, stillbirth associated with pre-eclampsia decreased more than neonatal mortality over time, and in the last 5 years only a moderate excess risk of stillbirth and neonatal death was observed.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Parity
  • Perinatal Mortality*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors