Prolactin, hyperprolactinaemia and antipsychotic treatment: a review and lessons for treatment of early psychosis

J Psychopharmacol. 2012 May;26(5 Suppl):42-51. doi: 10.1177/0269881112442016. Epub 2012 Apr 2.


Hyperprolactinaemia is a common side effect of antipsychotics; markedly raised levels are less common. Higher levels of prolactin result from longer exposure to higher doses, especially with older antipsychotics or with risperidone, sulpiride or amisulpride. Galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia, menstrual abnormalities and sexual dysfunction including hypogonadism and fertility problems are consequences of raised prolactin, and in the longer-term bone demineralisation. Younger patients may be more susceptible to hyperprolactinaemia. Trial reports often fail to state the frequency of raised levels.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hyperprolactinemia / blood
  • Hyperprolactinemia / chemically induced*
  • Prolactin / blood*
  • Psychotic Disorders / blood
  • Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy*


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Prolactin