Pitavastatin is a novel statin recently approved in the United States as an adjunctive therapy with diet to reduce elevated total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This open-label study enrolled 16 subjects as follows: group A: 8 adult subjects with severe renal impairment who were not on hemodialysis (estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2) and group B: 8 healthy adult subjects (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥80 mL/min/1.73 m2). On day 1, the subjects received a single oral dose of pitavastatin 4 mg and remained in the clinic on days 1-3 for safety and pharmacokinetic assessments. Comparing group A with group B, the geometric mean ratio of AUC(0-inf) for pitavastatin was 1.36 (90% confidence interval, 0.88-2.11). For Cmax, the corresponding ratio was 1.18 (90% confidence interval, 0.68-2.02). There were no severe treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, deaths, or treatment-emergent AEs leading to study drug discontinuation. A single dose of pitavastatin 4 mg was safe and well tolerated by the subjects in this study with severe renal impairment, who were not on hemodialysis.