Background: Patients with active cancer are often on chronic anticoagulation and frequently require interruption of this treatment for invasive procedures. The impact of cancer on periprocedural thromboembolism (TE) and major bleeding is not known.
Patients and methods: Two thousand one hundred and eighty-two consecutive patients referred for periprocedural anticoagulation (2484 procedures) using a standardized protocol were followed forward in time to estimate the 3-month incidence of TE, major bleeding and survival stratified by anticoagulation indication. For each indication, we tested active cancer and bridging heparin therapy as potential predictors of TE and major bleeding.
Results: Compared with patients without cancer, active cancer patients (n=493) had more venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications (1.2% versus 0.2%; P=0.001), major bleeding (3.4% versus 1.7%; P=0.02) and reduced survival (95% versus 99%; P<0.001). Among active cancer patients, only those chronically anticoagulated for VTE had higher rates of periprocedural VTE (2% versus 0.16%; P=0.002) and major bleeding (3.7% versus 0.6%; P<0.001). Bridging with heparin increased the rate of major bleeding in cancer patients (5% versus 1%; P=0.03) without impacting the VTE rate (0.7% versus 1.4%, P=0.50).
Conclusions: Cancer patients anticoagulated for VTE experience higher rates of periprocedural VTE and major bleeding. Periprocedural anticoagulation for these patients requires particular attention to reduce these complications.