The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible risk for cancer development in infertile women with over 30 years of follow-up. Cancer development was assessed through linkage with the National Cancer Registry updated to 31 December 2005 in a cohort of 2431 women who were treated for infertility at the Sheba Medical Center in Israel during the period 1964-1974 and contributed more than 84,000 women years of follow-up. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated between the observed cancer cases and the expected cancer rates in the general population. The mean age at the end of follow-up was 62.7 years. Eighteen cases of ovarian cancer were observed as compared to 18.1 expected (SIR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.59-1.57). For breast cancer, 153 cases were observed as compared to 131.9 expected (SIR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.36), and for endometrial cancer, 30 cases were observed as compared to 17.8 expected cases (SIR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.14-2.41). No excess risk associated with exposure to gonadotropins was observed. Infertility was found to be associated with significant increased risk for endometrial cancer and borderline increased risk for breast cancer. Ovarian cancer risk was not found to be elevated. No significant excess risk was associated with treatment with ovulation induction.