Rice PLASTOCHRON genes regulate leaf maturation downstream of the gibberellin signal transduction pathway

Planta. 2012 May;235(5):1081-9. doi: 10.1007/s00425-012-1639-5. Epub 2012 Apr 5.


Rice PLASTOCHRON 1 (PLA1) and PLA2 genes regulate leaf maturation and plastochron, and their loss-of-function mutants exhibit small organs and rapid leaf emergence. They encode a cytochrome P450 protein CYP78A11 and an RNA-binding protein, respectively. Their homologs in Arabidopsis and maize are also associated with plant development/organ size. Despite the importance of PLA genes in plant development, their molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we investigated how PLA1 and PLA2 genes are related to phytohormones. We found that gibberellin (GA) is the major phytohormone that promotes PLA1 and PLA2 expression. GA induced PLA1 and PLA2 expression, and conversely the GA-inhibitor uniconazole suppressed PLA1 and PLA2 expression. In pla1-4 and pla2-1 seedlings, expression levels of GA biosynthesis genes and the signal transduction gene were similar to those in wild-type seedlings. GA treatment slightly down-regulated the GA biosynthesis gene GA20ox2 and up-regulated the GA-catabolizing gene GA2ox4, whereas the GA biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole up-regulated GA20ox2 and down-regulated GA2ox4 both in wild-type and pla mutants, suggesting that the GA feedback mechanism is not impaired in pla1 and pla2. To reveal how GA signal transduction affects the expression of PLA1 and PLA2, PLA expression in GA-signaling mutants was examined. In GA-insensitive mutant, gid1 and less-sensitive mutant, Slr1-d1, PLA1 and PLA2 expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the expression levels of PLA1 and PLA2 were highly enhanced in a GA-constitutive-active mutant, slr1-1, causing ectopic overexpression. These results indicate that both PLA1 and PLA2 act downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway to regulate leaf development.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Gibberellins / metabolism*
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Oryza / growth & development*
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Growth Regulators / metabolism
  • Plant Leaves / growth & development*
  • Seedlings / growth & development
  • Signal Transduction
  • Triazoles / metabolism


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Gibberellins
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Triazoles
  • uniconazole