Protective effects of 3,4-oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid on experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid in rats

Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Aug;57(8):2045-54. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2155-y. Epub 2012 Apr 3.


Background: 3,4-Oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid (ISA) is a derivative of shikimic acid (SA). SA is extracted from Illicium verum Hook.fil., which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating vomiting, stomach aches, insomnia, skin inflammation, and rheumatic pain.

Aims: To investigate the effects and the protective mechanism of 3,4-oxo-isopropylidene-shikimic acid on experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats.

Methods: Colitis in rats was induced by colonic administration with TNBS. ISA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered for 12 days to experimental colitis rats. The inflammatory degree was assessed by macroscopic damage score, colon weight/length ratios (mg/cm), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities were measured with biochemical methods.

Results: ISA significantly ameliorated macroscopic damage, reduced colon weight/length ratios and the activity of MPO, depressed MDA and NO levels and iNOS activity, and enhanced GSH level, and GSH-Px and SOD activities in the colon tissues of experimental colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the effect of ISA (200 mg/kg) was as effective as sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg).

Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of ISA on experimental colitis, probably due to an antioxidant action.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy*
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / pathology
  • Colon / immunology
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Colon / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Neutrophil Infiltration
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Shikimic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Shikimic Acid / pharmacology
  • Shikimic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid


  • 3,4-oxoisopropylideneshikimic acid
  • Shikimic Acid
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, rat
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione