Telomere length (TL) both reflects and limits the replicative life span of normal somatic cells. As a consequence, critically shortened telomeres are associated with a variety of disease states. Telomere attrition can be counteracted by a nucleoprotein complex containing telomerase. Mutations in subunits of telomerase, telomerase-binding proteins as well as in members of the shelterin complex have been described both in inherited and acquired bone marrow failure syndromes. Here, we report on a patient with acquired aplastic anemia and a nonsynonymous variation of codon 1062 of the hTERT gene (p.Ala1062Thr) whose substantial and maintained hematologic response to long-term androgen treatment (including complete transfusion independence) was paralleled by a significant and continued increase in TL in multilineage peripheral blood cells. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of sustained telomere elongation in hematopoietic stem cells induced by a pharmacological approach in vivo (141 words).