Single mothers are a vulnerable population at risk for poor mental and physical health. This paper discusses the mental and physical health of single mothers, as well as the psychosocial and socio-economic risk factors placing single mothers at risk for poor health outcomes. Some of these include, gender, income level, educational status, social support, stress and certain personality characteristics. Theoretical models with the potential to explore ways to promote health in depressed single mothers will also be presented. The paper concludes with the application of these models to primary prevention and the promotion of health for single mothers along with recommendations for future research.