Profilin-1 (PFN1) plays an important role in the control of actin dynamics, and could represent an important therapeutic target in several diseases. We previously identified PFN1 as a huntingtin aggregation inhibitor, and others have implicated it as a tumor-suppressor. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) directly phosphorylates PFN1 at Ser-137 to prevent its binding to polyproline sequences. This negatively regulates its anti-aggregation activity. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates PFN1 at Ser-137, and thus activates it, is unknown. Using a phospho-specific antibody against Ser-137 of PFN1, we characterized PFN1 dephosphorylation in cultured cells based on immunocytochemistry and a quantitative plate reader-based assay. Both okadaic acid and endothall increased pS137-PFN1 levels at concentrations more consistent with their known IC(50)s for protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) than protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Knockdown of the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1Cα), but not PP2A (PP2ACα), increased pS137-PFN1 levels. PP1Cα binds PFN1 in cultured cells, and this interaction was increased by a phosphomimetic mutation of PFN1 at Ser-137 (S137D). Together, these data define PP1 as the principal phosphatase for Ser-137 of PFN1, and provide mechanistic insights into PFN1 regulation by phosphorylation.