Porcine model of hemorrhagic shock with microdialysis monitoring

J Surg Res. 2013 Jan;179(1):e177-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2012.01.040. Epub 2012 Mar 14.


Background: A number of experimental protocols have been used to try to reproduce the clinical scenarios of hemorrhagic shock. The present study reports on an experimental swine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock that incorporates microdialysis monitoring for the evaluation of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The aim of our study was to provide a reproducible, accurate, and reliable model for the testing and evaluation of therapeutic interventions in the area of hemorrhagic shock.

Methods: Landrace swine (n = 8) were subjected to controlled hemorrhagic shock, with a mean arterial pressure of 35 ± 5 as the endpoint. Six more pigs were used as the control group. Microdialysis monitoring of the tissue lactate/pyruvate ratio was used. The mean arterial pressure, heart rate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and lactate/pyruvate ratio measurements were obtained just before (phase A) and 30 min after (phase B) hemorrhage in the study group; the control group underwent the same measurements at the corresponding points.

Results: The mean arterial pressure, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were lower (P < 0.05) in the study group than in the control group at phase B and compared with the values for the study group at phase A. Also, the lactate/pyruvate ratio and heart rate were greater (P < 0.05) in the study group than in control group at phase B and compared with the values for the study group at phase A.

Conclusions: This model of hemorrhagic shock is effective and correlates with the clinical parameters of tissue oxygenation, as documented by microdialysis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arterial Pressure / physiology
  • Hematocrit
  • Hemoglobins
  • Lactates / blood
  • Microdialysis / methods*
  • Models, Animal*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Pyruvates / blood
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / blood*
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / physiopathology*
  • Swine


  • Hemoglobins
  • Lactates
  • Pyruvates