Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) knockout mice exhibit improved spatial memory and deficits in contextual memory

Behav Brain Res. 2012 Jun 15;232(1):13-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.03.012. Epub 2012 Mar 31.


Although the hormone ghrelin is best known for its stimulatory effect on appetite and regulation of growth hormone release, it is also reported to have beneficial effects on learning and memory formation in mice. Nevertheless, controversy exists about whether endogenous ghrelin acts on its receptors in extra-hypothalamic areas of the brain. The ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) is co-expressed in neurons that express dopamine receptor type-1 (DRD1a) and type-2 (DRD2), and we have shown that a subset of GHS-R1a, which are not occupied by the agonist (apo-GHSR1a), heterodimerize with these two receptors to regulate dopamine signaling in vitro and in vivo. To determine the consequences of ghsr ablation on brain function, congenic ghsr -/- mice on the C57BL6/J background were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. We show that the ghsr -/- mice exhibit normal balance, movement, coordination, and pain sensation, outperform ghsr +/+ mice in the Morris water maze, but show deficits in contextual fear conditioning.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Body Weight / genetics
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Conditioning, Operant / physiology
  • Fear / psychology
  • Maze Learning / physiology
  • Memory / physiology*
  • Memory Disorders / genetics*
  • Memory Disorders / psychology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Motor Activity / physiology
  • Pain / psychology
  • Postural Balance / physiology
  • Reaction Time / physiology
  • Receptors, Ghrelin / genetics*
  • Receptors, Ghrelin / physiology*
  • Space Perception / physiology*


  • Receptors, Ghrelin