Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012 Jun;32(6):1148-54. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.03.021. Epub 2012 Mar 30.


The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basidiomycota / immunology*
  • Ciliophora Infections / immunology*
  • Complement System Proteins / analysis
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Disease Resistance*
  • Fish Diseases / immunology*
  • Flounder / immunology*
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Muramidase / blood
  • Oligohymenophorea / immunology
  • Protease Inhibitors / blood
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / immunology


  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Complement System Proteins
  • Muramidase