Simulated downwind coal combustion emissions for laboratory inhalation exposure atmospheres

Inhal Toxicol. 2012 Apr;24(5):310-9. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2012.661800.


Exposure atmospheres for rodent inhalation toxicology studies were generated to enable the evaluation of biological responses to a simulated downwind coal combustion atmosphere. A composition representing a single test case of emissions components as they may exist tens to hundreds of miles from a coal-fired power plant was developed. The particulate matter (PM) was 99% sulfate (partially neutralized) and 1% ash. Sulfate was present in equimolar concentrations to sulfur dioxide (SO₂). Gaseous nitrogen species included nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and nitric acid (HNO₃). At the high-exposure level, the gaseous species target concentrations were 0.2 ppm SO₂, 0.6 ppm NO, 0.3 ppm NO₂, and 0.1 ppm HNO₃. The test atmosphere was produced by combining effluent from a laboratory coal combustor with sulfate generated through an evaporation-condensation generator. These atmospheres were used to conduct inhalation toxicology studies that have been previously reported.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Air Pollutants* / analysis
  • Ammonia / analysis
  • Coal*
  • Metals / analysis
  • Nitrogen Oxides / analysis
  • Particulate Matter* / analysis
  • Power Plants*
  • Sulfates / analysis
  • Sulfur Dioxide / analysis
  • Toxicity Tests / methods*
  • Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis


  • Air Pollutants
  • Coal
  • Metals
  • Nitrogen Oxides
  • Particulate Matter
  • Sulfates
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • Ammonia