Background: The preoperative diagnosis of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas can be very difficult, since low-risk and high-risk lesions can be difficult to differentiate even after cytological analysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preoperative diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in differentiating low-risk and high-risk IPMNs.
Methods: We retrospectively identified 36 patients who underwent preoperative EUS for branch duct IPMNs. The pathological diagnosis after surgical resection was low-grade dysplasia (n = 26), moderate dysplasia (n = 1), high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (n = 5), and invasive carcinoma (n = 4). We divided the patients into two groups: low risk (low-grade dysplasia or moderate dysplasia) and high risk (high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma). We focused on the diameter of the cystic dilated branch duct, the main pancreatic duct, and the mural nodule as measured using the EUS findings.
Results: The cystic dilated branch duct diameter (31.5 mm vs. 41.9 mm, P = 0.0225) was significantly correlated with low-risk and high-risk IPMNs, but the main pancreatic duct diameter (5.37 mm vs. 5.44 mm, P = 0.9418) was not significantly correlated with the low-risk and high-risk IPMNs. The mural nodule diameter of the papillary protrusions (4.3 mm vs. 16.4 mm, P < 0.0001) and the width diameter of the mural nodule (5.7 mm vs. 23.2 mm, P < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with low-risk and high-risk IPMNs.
Conclusions: The mural nodule of papillary protrusions diameter and width diameter observed using EUS was a reliable preoperative diagnostic finding capable of distinguishing low-risk and high-risk IPMNs.
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