Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

Food Nutr Res. 2012:56. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5505. Epub 2012 Apr 2.


Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones.

Keywords: dietary intake; food composition; menaquinones; phylloquinone; vitamin K.