Organization, structure, and polymorphisms of the human profilaggrin gene

Biochemistry. 1990 Oct 9;29(40):9432-40. doi: 10.1021/bi00492a018.


Profilaggrin is a major protein component of the keratohyalin granules of mammalian epidermis. It is initially expressed as a large polyprotein precursor and is subsequently proteolytically processed into individual functional filaggrin molecules. We have isolated genomic DNA and cDNA clones encoding the 5'- and 3'-ends of the human gene and mRNA. The data reveal the presence of likely "CAT" and "TATA" sequences, an intron in the 5'-untranslated region, and several potential regulatory sequences. While all repeats are of the same length (972 bp, 324 amino acids), sequences display considerable variation (10-15%) between repeats on the same clone and between different clones. Most variations are attributable to single-base changes, but many also involve changes in charge. Thus, human filaggrin consists of a heterogeneous population of molecules of different sizes, charges, and sequences. However, amino acid sequences encoding the amino and carboxyl termini are more conserved, as are the 5' and 3' DNA sequences flanking the coding portions of the gene. The presence of unique restriction enzyme sites in these conserved flanking sequences has enabled calculations on the size of the full-length gene and the numbers of repeats in it: depending on the source of genomic DNA, the gene contains 10, 11, or 12 filaggrin repeats that segregate in kindred families by normal Mendelian genetic mechanisms. This means that the human profilaggrin gene system is also polymorphic with respect to size due to simple allelic differences between different individuals. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of profilaggrin contain partial or truncated repeats with unusual un-filaggrin-like sequences on the termini.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics*
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pedigree
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Protein Precursors / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid


  • Intermediate Filament Proteins
  • Protein Precursors
  • RNA, Messenger
  • filaggrin
  • DNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/J02929
  • GENBANK/M60494
  • GENBANK/M60495
  • GENBANK/M60499
  • GENBANK/M60500
  • GENBANK/M60501
  • GENBANK/M60502
  • GENBANK/M60503