Salt-induced chloroplast protrusion is the process of exclusion of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from chloroplasts into cytoplasm in leaves of rice

Plant Cell Environ. 2012 Sep;35(9):1663-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02516.x. Epub 2012 May 3.


Chloroplast protrusions (CPs) are often observed under environmental stresses, but their role has not been elucidated. The formation of CPs was observed in the leaf of rice plants treated with 75 mm NaCl for 14 d. Some CPs were almost separated from the main chloroplast body. In some CPs, inner membrane structures and crystalline inclusions were included. Similar structures surrounded by double membranes were observed in the cytoplasm and vacuole. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was detected in CPs and the similar structures in the cytoplasm and vacuole. These results suggest that CP is one of the pathways of Rubisco exclusion from chloroplasts into the cytoplasm under salinity, and the exclusions could be transported to vacuole for their degradation.

MeSH terms

  • Chloroplasts / drug effects
  • Chloroplasts / enzymology*
  • Chloroplasts / ultrastructure
  • Intracellular Membranes / drug effects
  • Intracellular Membranes / metabolism
  • Intracellular Membranes / ultrastructure
  • Mesophyll Cells / cytology
  • Mesophyll Cells / drug effects
  • Mesophyll Cells / enzymology
  • Mesophyll Cells / ultrastructure
  • Models, Biological
  • Oryza / drug effects
  • Oryza / enzymology*
  • Oryza / ultrastructure
  • Plant Leaves / cytology
  • Plant Leaves / drug effects
  • Plant Leaves / enzymology*
  • Plant Leaves / ultrastructure
  • Protein Transport / drug effects
  • Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase / metabolism*
  • Salinity
  • Sodium Chloride / pharmacology*
  • Vacuoles / drug effects
  • Vacuoles / metabolism
  • Vacuoles / ultrastructure


  • Sodium Chloride
  • Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase