2.45-Gz wireless devices induce oxidative stress and proliferation through cytosolic Ca²⁺ influx in human leukemia cancer cells

Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Jun;88(6):449-56. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2012.682192. Epub 2012 May 2.


Purpose: Electromagnetic radiation from wireless devices may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals. The present study was designed to determine the effects of 2.45 GHz radiation on the antioxidant redox system, calcium ion signaling, cell count and viability in human leukemia 60 cells.

Materials and methods: Twelve cell cultures were equally divided into two main groups as controls (n = 6) and irradiated (n = 6) and then subdivided into four different subgroups depending on the duration of exposure, namely 1, 2, 12 and 24 hours. The samples were analyzed immediately after the experimental period.

Results: The extent of lipid peroxidation, cytosolic free Ca²⁺ and cell numbers were higher in 2.45 GHz groups than in the controls. The increase of cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations was radiation time-dependent and was highest at 24-h exposure. The reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C and cell viability values did not show any changes in any of the experimental groups. 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate inhibits Ca²⁺ ions influx by blockage of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2.

Conclusions: 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation appears to induce proliferative effects through oxidative stress and Ca²⁺ influx although blocking of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate seems to counteract the effects on Ca²⁺ ions influx.

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / metabolism
  • Boron Compounds / pharmacology
  • Calcium Signaling / radiation effects*
  • Cell Phone
  • Cell Proliferation / radiation effects
  • Cell Survival / radiation effects
  • Electromagnetic Radiation*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • HL-60 Cells
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation / radiation effects
  • Oxidative Stress / radiation effects*
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects
  • TRPM Cation Channels / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Wireless Technology*


  • 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate
  • Boron Compounds
  • TRPM Cation Channels
  • TRPM2 protein, human
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione
  • Ascorbic Acid