After decades of increase, lung cancer has become the leading cause of cancer death among women. The mortality rate from lung cancer is ascending at a relatively steady rate, which has greatly affected the health of the female population and become a serious issue. A case-control study of 226 female lung cancer cases and 269 controls was conducted from 2006 to 2010 in Fujian Province. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information on demographic characteristics as well as dietary and environmental factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using univariate logistic regression. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the potential interactions of variables or confounders. The consumption of fruit, eggs, and tea was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer. As expected, cooking oil fumes and environmental tobacco exposure were positively associated with elevated risk. In addition, frequent physical activity and late age at menarche were identified as protective factors of female lung cancer. The results demonstrate that some environmental and dietary factors are related to the risk of lung cancer among the female population in southeast China.