Disruption of the gut microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has been implicated in the development of obesity. It remains to be elucidated whether the HFD-induced shifts occur at the phylum level or whether they can be attributed to specific phylotypes; additionally, it is unclear to what extent the changes are reversible under normal chow (NC) feeding. One group (diet-induced obesity, DIO) of adult C57BL/6J mice was fed a HFD for 12 weeks until significant obesity and insulin resistance were observed, and then these mice were switched to NC feeding for 10 weeks. Upon switching to NC feeding, the metabolic deteriorations observed during HFD consumption were significantly alleviated. The second group (control, CHO) remained healthy under continuous NC feeding. UniFrac analysis of bar-coded pyrosequencing data showed continued structural segregation of DIO from CHO on HFD. At 4 weeks after switching back to NC, the gut microbiota in the DIO group had already moved back to the CHO space, and continued to progress along the same age trajectory and completely converged with CHO after 10 weeks. Redundancy analysis identified 77 key phylotypes responding to the dietary perturbations. HFD-induced shifts of these phylotypes all reverted to CHO levels over time. Some of these phylotypes exhibited robust age-related changes despite the dramatic abundance variations in response to dietary alternations. These findings suggest that HFD-induced structural changes of the gut microbiota can be attributed to reversible elevation or diminution of specific phylotypes, indicating the significant structural resilience of the gut microbiota of adult mice to dietary perturbations.