Voltage-gated Na⁺-channels are transmembrane proteins that are responsible for the fast depolarizing phase of the action potential in nerve and muscular cells. Selective permeability of Na⁺ over Ca²⁺ or K⁺ ions is essential for the biological function of Na⁺-channels. After the emergence of the first high-resolution structure of a Na⁺-channel, an anionic coordination site was proposed to confer Na⁺ selectivity through partial dehydration of Na⁺ via its direct interaction with conserved glutamate side chains. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations, a low-energy permeation pathway for Na⁺ ion translocation through the selectivity filter of the recently determined crystal structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel from Arcobacter butzleri is characterised. The picture that emerges is that of a pore preferentially occupied by two ions, which can switch between different configurations by crossing low free-energy barriers. In contrast to K⁺-channels, the movements of the ions appear to be weakly coupled in Na⁺-channels. When the free-energy maps for Na⁺ and K⁺ ions are compared, a selective site is characterised in the narrowest region of the filter, where a hydrated Na⁺ ion, and not a hydrated K⁺ ion, is energetically stable.