Background and aims: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are generally used to prevent delayed bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and to heal the artificial ulcers. However, it remains controversial whether PPIs or histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H(2) RAs) are more effective in preventing delayed bleeding after ESD. We prospectively compared the effects of omeprazole and famotidine in preventing delayed bleeding and promoting artificial ulcer healing after ESD.
Methods: A total of 158 patients (155 early gastric cancers and three adenomas) were randomly assigned to the PPI group (omeprazole 20 mg/day) or H(2) RA group (famotidine 40 mg/day) in a prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary end point was the incidence of hematemesis, melena, and/or a decrease in hemoglobin level of 2 g/dL or more requiring endoscopic hemostatic treatment. ESD-induced ulcer healing and changes in ulcer size were also compared at 6 weeks after ESD as a secondary end point.
Results: Of the 158 patients, two were excluded from analysis because they had been treated with a PPI before the present study. Accordingly, data from 77 PPI and 79 H(2) RA subjects were included for analysis. Delayed bleeding after ESD occurred in 6.5% of subjects (PPI group) and in 6.3% (H(2) RA group); there was no significant difference between the two groups. Likewise, the two groups were not significantly different with respect to ulcer stage or ulcer size reduction rate.
Conclusions: Proton pump inhibitors are not superior to H(2) RAs for the prevention of delayed bleeding or the healing of artificially induced ulcers after ESD.
© 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.