Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is an endogenous ligand of the Mas receptor and induces vasodilation, positive regulation of insulin, and antiproliferative and antitumorigenic activities. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind these biological properties. Aiming to identify proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide identification and phosphorylation site localization. Of these, 121 sites on 79 proteins had their phosphorylation levels significantly changed by Ang-(1-7). Our data suggest that the antiproliferative activity of Ang-(1-7) is due to the activation or inactivation of several target phosphoproteins, such as forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK), proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1 (AKT1S1), among others. In addition, the antitumorigenic activity of Ang-(1-7) is at least partially due to FOXO1 activation, since we show that this transcriptional factor is activated and accumulated in the nucleus of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells treated with Ang-(1-7). Moreover, Ang-(1-7) triggered changes in the phosphorylation status of several known downstream effectors of the insulin signaling, indicating an important role of Ang-(1-7) in glucose homeostasis. In summary, this study provides new concepts and new understanding of the Ang-(1-7) signal transduction, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying Mas activation.