DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, multisystemic disorder characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular and central nervous system manifestations.
Epidemiology: BD seems to cluster along the ancient Silk Road, which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. European cases are often described, not exclusively in the migrant population.
Clinical description: The clinical spectrum includes oral and genital ulcerations, uveitis, vascular, neurological, articular, renal and gastrointestinal manifestations.
Etiology: The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, although genetic predisposition, environmental factors and immunological abnormalities have been implicated.
Diagnostic methods: Diagnosis is only based on clinical criteria. DIFFERRENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: It depends on the clinical presentation of BD, but sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, Takayasu's arteritis, polychondritis or antiphospholipid syndrome need to be considered.
Management: Treatment is symptomatic using steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. It is efficient depending on the rapidity of initiation, the compliance, and the duration of therapy.
Prognosis: The prognosis is severe due to the ocular, neurological and arterial involvement.