Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with chromosomal rearrangement of transcription factor for immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer 3 (TFE3) at Xp11.2 is a distinct subtype that was initially described in children and has been reported to display an indolent course. Recent reports have identified RCC with TFE3 rearrangements in adults and have suggested a more aggressive course in this population. However, only a few studies have examined these tumors in a large series of consecutively treated adults. We screened 632 RCCs from patients consecutively treated by surgery at a single institution by fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect TFE3 rearrangements. We identified 6 RCCs with TFE3 rearrangement. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 78 years and included 4 women and 2 men. Tumors showed significant histologic variability. Comparison of the clinical and pathologic features between RCCs with TFE3 rearrangements and RCCs without TFE3 rearrangements showed no significant differences. Follow-up period for patients with TFE3-rearranged RCC ranged from 0.8 to 16.5 years, with 4 of 6 dying from the disease. Cancer-specific survival for patients with TFE3-rearranged RCC was significantly worse than for patients with TFE3-rearrangement-negative papillary-type RCC (P<0.001) but not different from that for TFE3-rearrangement-negative clear cell-type RCC. In conclusion, we present an assessment of TFE3 rearrangement status in a large series of adults consecutively treated by surgery for RCC. Our findings confirm that RCCs with TFE3 rearrangement account for only approximately 1% of adult RCCs. The results also suggest that adult RCC with TFE3 rearrangement may be a clinically aggressive tumor.