Anti-inflammatory effects of shea butter through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the Nf-κB pathway in LPS-activated J774 macrophage cells

J Complement Integr Med. 2012 Jan 12;9:Article 4. doi: 10.1515/1553-3840.1574.

Abstract

Shea butter is traditionally used in Africa for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In this study we explored the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of shea butter (SBE) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774. It was observed that SBE significantly reduced the levels of LPS-induced nitric oxide, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins, 1β (IL-1β), and -12 (IL-12) in the culture supernatants in a dose dependent manner. Expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also inhibited by SBE. These anti-inflammatory effects were due to an inhibitory action of SBE on LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 mRNA expressions. Moreover, SBE efficiently suppressed IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by LPS. These findings explain the molecular bases of shea butter's bioactivity against various inflammatory conditions and substantiate it as a latent source of novel therapeutic agents.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Interleukin-12 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sapotaceae*
  • Seeds
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-12
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2