Connectional heterogeneity of the ventral part of the macaque area 46

Cereb Cortex. 2013 Apr;23(4):967-87. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs096. Epub 2012 Apr 11.


We found that the ventral part of the prefrontal area 46 (46v) is connectionally heterogeneous. Specifically, the rostral part (46vr) displayed an almost exclusive and extensive intraprefrontal connectivity and extraprefrontal connections limited to area 24 and inferotemporal areas. In contrast, the caudal part (46vc) mostly displayed intraprefrontal connectivity with ventrolateral areas and robust connectivity with frontal and parietal sensorimotor areas. Based on a topographic organization of these connections, 3 fields were identified in area 46vc. A caudal field (caudal 46vc) was preferentially connected to oculomotor prearcuate (8/FEF, 45B, and 8r) and inferior parietal areas. The other 2, located more rostrally, in the bank of the principal sulcus (rostral 46vc/bank) and on the ventrolateral convexity cortex (rostral 46vc/convexity), respectively, were connected with hand/mouth-related (F5a, 44) ventral premotor areas, area SII, and the insula. However, rostral 46vc/convexity was also connected to the hand-related area AIP, whereas rostral 46vc/bank to hand/arm-related areas PFG and PG, to PGop, and to areas 11 and 24. The present data suggest a differential role in executive functions of areas 46vr and 46vc and a differential involvement of different parts of area 46vc in higher level integration for oculomotor behavior and goal-directed arm, hand, and mouth actions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amidines / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Biotin / analogs & derivatives
  • Biotin / metabolism
  • Brain Mapping*
  • Cholera Toxin / metabolism
  • Dextrans / metabolism
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Macaca / anatomy & histology
  • Neural Pathways / physiology*
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*


  • Amidines
  • Dextrans
  • biotinylated dextran amine
  • diamidino compound 253-50
  • Biotin
  • diamidino yellow
  • Cholera Toxin