Objective: To report the outcomes from a large multicenter cohort of neonates requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) after stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Methods: Using data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (2000-2009), we computed the survival to hospital discharge for neonates (age ≤30 days) supported with ECMO after stage 1 palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The factors associated with mortality were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: Among 738 neonates, the survival rate was 31%. The median age at cannulation was 7 days (interquartile range, 4-11). Black race (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-3.6), mechanical ventilation before ECMO (>15-131 hours: OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4; >131 hours: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9), use of positive end expiratory pressure (>6-8 cm H(2)O: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7; >8 cm H(2)O: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), and longer ECMO duration (per day, OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) increased mortality. ECMO support for failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.02-2.4) also decreased survival. ECMO complications, including renal failure (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), inotrope requirement (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), myocardial stun (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7), metabolic acidosis (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.7), and neurologic injury (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), during support also increased mortality.
Conclusions: Mortality for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome supported with ECMO after stage 1 palliation is high. Longer ventilation before cannulation, longer support duration, and ECMO complications increased mortality.
Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.