Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundantly produced antibody isotype in mammals. The primary function of IgA is to maintain homeostasis at mucosal surfaces. IgA is generated in specialized gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by T cell-dependent and T cell-independent mechanisms. Studies in mice have demonstrated that IgA diversification has an essential role in the regulation of gut microbiota. Aberrant bacterial growth, by activating innate and adaptive immune cells, has emerged as a risk factor for inflammatory diseases such as metabolic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Dynamic diversification of IgA shields bacterial antigens preventing inflammatory responses, but when IgA regulation is suboptimal aberrant bacterial growth and inflammation can ensue.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.