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. 2012 Jun;99:63-70.
doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2012.03.013. Epub 2012 Apr 7.

A Mouse Model of Ocular Blast Injury That Induces Closed Globe Anterior and Posterior Pole Damage

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A Mouse Model of Ocular Blast Injury That Induces Closed Globe Anterior and Posterior Pole Damage

Jessica Hines-Beard et al. Exp Eye Res. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • Exp Eye Res. 2014 Oct;127:301

Abstract

We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
A. Image of the ocular blast injury device. B. Image of the mouse housing. Arrows indicate: 1) output pressure regulator; 2) machined barrel at the end of the paintball gun; 3) chamber with mouse eye-sized hole facing the barrel into which the mouse housing (B) slides; 4) machined barrel on the pressure transducer; 5) pressure transducer that connects to the laptop.
Figure 2
Figure 2
A. Predicted output pressures. B. Measured output pressures at increasing input pressures at 0cm from the barrel. C. Averaged measured waveform (10 trials) of blast pressures at 0 cm from the barrel and an input pressure of 120 psi. D. Duration of the blast at increasing input pressures measured at 0cm from the end of the barrel. E. Measured output pressures (y-axis) at increasing input pressures (legend) and distances from the barrel (x-axis). All error bars represent the standard deviation.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Representative images of ocular gross pathology findings after exposure to a blast. A. contralateral eye from 26psi blast; B. corneal abrasions (immediately post-26psi blast) ; C. corneal edema (3 days post-26psi blast); D. corneal scarring (14 days post-26psi blast); E. and F. torn extraocular muscles and optic nerve avulsion with intact globe (Arrows indicate optic nerve avulsion; immediately post-30psi blast).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Graph of blast-exposed eyes showing a decrease in photopic visual acuity threshold post-blast in a subset of mice. Each line represents the blast-exposed eye of one mouse. All mice analyzed out to at least 7 days post-23psi blast are shown (A-G) along with one 30psi blast eye. All mice had clear corneas and lenses. The dotted line indicates the previously published average visual acuity of normal C57Bl/6 mice (Prusky et al., 2004; Douglas et al., 2005; Umino et al., 2008).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Whisker plot of IOP measurements taken pre-blast, and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days: A) 23psi; B) 26psi; C) 30psi.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Optical coherence tomography images of representative B-line scans through superior peripheral retina of: A) contralateral eye; B) eye exposed to a 23psi blast; C) eye exposed to a 26 psi blast; and D) eye exposed to a 30psi blast. E) Fundus image of the same 26psi blast eye as shown in C). The green line indicates the location of the b-line scan through the area of retinal thinning. Note that only eyes with clear corneas and lenses were used for OCT imaging.

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