Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture

Nat Genet. 2012 Apr 15;44(5):491-501. doi: 10.1038/ng.2249.

Abstract

Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 × 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density / genetics*
  • Computational Biology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics
  • Female
  • Femur Neck / physiopathology
  • Fractures, Bone / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5 / genetics
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Osteoporosis / genetics*
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Quantitative Trait Loci*
  • Risk Factors
  • Spectrin / genetics

Substances

  • DKK1 protein, human
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • LRP5 protein, human
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5
  • MEPE protein, human
  • Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • SLC25A13 protein, human
  • SPTBN1 protein, human
  • Spectrin

Grant support