Background and purpose: Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT), a dual-action amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, improved glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats. Here, we have evaluated the anti-diabetic efficacy of oral sCT using parameters of glycaemic control and beta-cell morphology in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes.
Experimental approach: Male ZDF rats were treated with oral sCT (0.5, 1.0 or 2 mg·kg(-1) ) or oral vehicle twice daily from age 8 to 18 weeks. Zucker lean rats served as control group. Fasting and non-fasted blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and levels of pancreas and incretin hormones were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test and i.p. glucose tolerance test were compared, and beta-cell area and function were evaluated.
Key results: Oral sCT treatment dose-dependently attenuated fasting and non-fasted hyperglycaemia during the intervention period. At the end of the study period, oral sCT treatment by dose decreased diabetic hyperglycaemia by ∼9 mM and reduced HbA1c levels by 1.7%. Furthermore, a pronounced reduction in glucose excursions was dose-dependently observed for oral sCT treatment during oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, oral sCT treatment sustained hyperinsulinaemia and attenuated hyperglucagonaemia and hypersecretion of total glucagon-like peptide-1 predominantly in the basal state. Lastly, oral sCT treatment dose-dependently improved pancreatic beta-cell function and beta-cell area at study end.
Conclusions and implications: Oral sCT attenuated diabetic hyperglycaemia in male ZDF rats by improving postprandial glycaemic control, exerting an insulinotropic and glucagonostatic action in the basal state and by preserving pancreatic beta-cell function and beta-cell area.
© 2012 Nordic Bioscience. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.