Context: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonad-specific hormone, which is extensively used as a marker of gonadal status. The level of serum AMH has a high variance in similar individuals for reasons that are unknown. The AMH gene promoter contains a vitamin D response element that may cause vitamin D status to influence serum AMH levels.
Aim: The objective of the study was to determine whether serum levels of AMH are related to 25-hydroxyitamin D [25(OH)D)] status.
Setting: This was a correlative and intervention study.
Participants: Three cohorts of participants were analyzed; mature men (n = 113), premenopausal women (n = 33), and 5- to 6-yr-old boys (n = 74). Women were given a daily supplement of ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, or a placebo for 6 months and provided baseline and posttreatment blood samples.
Main outcome measures: Serum AMH and 25(OH)D were measured and analyzed for covariation.
Results: Serum AMH positively correlated with 25(OH)D in men (r = 0.22, P = 0.02) but not boys. Both 25(OH)D and AMH levels exhibited seasonal variation in women, with an 18% decrease in AMH levels in winter compared with summer (P = 0.01). Change in AMH level correlated with the initial AMH level and the magnitude of change in vitamin D levels (r = 0.36, P = 0.004). Cholecalciferol supplementation prevented seasonal AMH change.
Conclusion: Vitamin D may be a positive regulator of AMH production in adults, and vitamin D deficiency may confound clinical decisions based on AMH. Vitamin D deficiency should be considered when serum AMH levels are obtained for diagnosis.