The effect of parboiled rice (PR) and white rice (WR) diets on oxidative stress (OS) parameters was investigated in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (40 mg kg(-1), iv). The experimental groups (n=8) were control fed with PR (CPR), control fed with WR, diabetic fed with PR, and diabetic fed with WR. After 30 days of treatment, all animals were anesthetized and exsanguinated before removal of kidneys, which were used to determine thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, carbonyl protein, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, and levels of glutathione (GSH). Total phenolic compounds were determined in WR and PR grains. Our data indicated that diabetes induced increase in TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides levels. Although PR has not prevented the rise in the levels of these measurements, its consumption by our animals resulted in higher GPx activity and GSH content than that of the CPR. Moreover, PR also presented concentration of total phenolic compounds 127% higher than WR grains. Thus, its consumption in this diabetic condition is suggested because this seems to confer greater protection against OS in the renal tissue of diabetic animals.